Electric Machines & Magnetic Field

Good Morning,

As we know, today’s world is growing at very fast pace, keeping in mind of various technological innovations and the basic requirements for all such innovations brings my focus to Electrical Energy.

For all such actions available to a common man, the availability of minimum & sufficient supply of electrical energy to each is essential. So for this entire let us have a basic knowledge of Electrical Machines and the very important work done by magnetic field which made this a possibility and not a dream.

    The key point is       

“Why we use Magnetic field only as a medium of conversion in the design of electrical machines”

Take an example of Transformer –a static, non linear device used to change the voltage levels at a constant frequency. Under normal operating level voltages, electric field strength developed will be very weak. In contrary even by having very less magnitude of current, we can develop a strong magnetic field by increasing number of turns. Maximum allowed energy density for air with respect to magnetic field is more compared to electric field. In other words we can say that for a given power rating, the size of machine, volume of material requirement and the cost of machine will be less with magnetic field compared to electric field.

By the study of various experiments carried out by famous scientists like Oersted, Ampere and Faraday’s the use of magnetic field in electric machines and its behavior characteristics were made clear to us, for example by Oersted’s experiment the generation of magnetic field by passage of electric current .Next Ampere’s experiment which gave us knowledge about the direct proportionality of magnetic field or flux to the current if and only if system is linear. Finally the Faraday’s law which thoroughly explained the induction of EMF by a changing flux that brought about a revolution in the electrical engineering.

So let us face the reality , a lot has been done in the field of electrical engineering and a lot is yet to be achieved and meet the requirements .A little step by all the members of electrical fraternity and also by all those who uses it can change the present scenario of Electrical Energy generation and requirement.


Top Guns

We meet to part & we part to meet, 

Saying adieu is a most difficult thing, especially when it comes to college life which is surrounded by numerous memories and bond of friendship to students. 

A farewell, A function, A celebration, A Party and wrapping all with memories that when we call goodbye with good wishes to our final year students.

Since college inception, this event is always celebrated with huge enthusiasm and lot of energy. It takes a lot of efforts from students and college both so students can be made ready to face future challenges. It can be seen and felt that after 4 years student turn to a better human and trained engineer, celebrating all those 4 years and the combination of all memories which students and college spent and made together make the farewell party. 

The best part of the entire evening is that final year student shown a lot of love and respect to their mentors, teachers giving a real meaning to Guru Shishya tradition. We always feel to cherish this tradition. Farewell is always seen and observed as a touching moment for student and teachers. The bond of excellence, achievements, winning is seen between the students and teachers. 

Farewell is not just to say goodbye but to energise the coming batches and to impart them with a lot of energy so that they can repeat the saga of success and keep faith to reach the epitome of success. 


Various Types OF Anti Knock Agents in Petrol Engine

Definition: – Anti Knocking agents are the additives added in small quantities in petrol engine to reduce the knocking tendency.

Introduction: – Initially A.H. Gibson and harry Ricardo do their research on anti knock agents. Very much known anti knock agent was tetraethyl lead (TEL). Later on Derek Bryce-Smith and Clair Cameron Patterson discover the environmental and Health issues with TEL because of lead. Now a day’s most of countries are phasing out leaded fuel and focusing on various anti knock additives. There are three major group of anti knock agents.

1 aromatics

2 Oxygenates

3 organo-metallic compounds.

1   Aromatics: – Benzene is one of the known aromatic compounds. U.S. EPA limits the overall benzene concentration in refined gasoline. Because benzene have been identified as carcinogen. Toluene and xylene are the main aromatic organic solvents usually found in anti knock additives. Toluene is a clear, water insoluble liquid. The properties of toluene and xylene are nearly identical. They are both octane boosters. They are also not bad for human health because it does not show carcinogenic.

2   Oxygenates: – Ethanol is most widely blended with gasoline. Similar type of octane enhancement can be obtained by methanol, isopropyl alcohol and tertiary butyl alcohol. The either is most widely used as a gasoline additive by refiners is MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether).

MTBE is soluble with water therefore its use as an anti knock agent is controversial. ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether) are good octane enhancing ether additives.

Oxygenates additives reduce the knocking but there are other draw with this. Like they are having low calorific value and reduce the mileage also.


3 organometallic compounds: – MMT (methyl cyclopentadieny manganese tri-carbonyl), dicyclopentadienyl iron, nickel carbonyl are metallic anti knock agent. They are toxic in nature. These

 additives having the problems with catalytic exhaust system, premature spark plug failure and engine wear. MMT is banned by U.S.A. in 1978 because of its toxic nature. Ferrocene (Fe (C5H5)2) having the unusual chemical structure. But it is safer then TEL. In Europe, iron pent carbonyl was once used as an anti-knock agent in petrol in place of tetraethyl lead. Iron pent carbonyl has been found to be a strong flame speed inhibitor in oxygen based flames.

Conclusion: – oxygenates additives are the best anti knock agents. It can increase octane rating and induce the complete fuel combustion. Aromatic compounds are also good anti knocking agents compare to the paraffin, olefins etc. Whereas organometallic compounds have environmental and health issues of human.


Phosphate coating is the treatment of iron steel, galvanized steel, or aluminum with dilute solution of phosphoric acid and other chemicals to produce mildly protective layer of insoluble crystalline phosphate.

The particular system considered in this research work is zinc phosphate coating. Recently, a better understanding of zinc phosphate coating has become essential with the fast development of surface treatment process. The available literature clearly points out that the content of accelerators, bath temperature, total acid point age, free acid point age, acid ratio, iron content, time for treatment are some important variables of phosphate coating. Although, the past investigation were helpful in identifying the variable factors to attain good quality of phosphate coatings remain as basic problem for the surface treated. Further, it was recognized that zinc phosphate coating is generally accepted to give the best performance for corrosion protection application base of lubricant, improve wear resistance and base for paint.

In the present work pretreatment and post treatment were carried out in the department. Actual phosphate was done by varying the process parameter. The data obtained were used to reveal physical property of zinc phosphate coating such as appearance, corrosion resistance, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study,  with the factors like bath temperature, time and concentration of accelerator.




1 :- ZINC PHOSPHATE COATING: – The zinc phosphate coating cover a wide range of weights and crystal characteristics, ranging from heavy films with coarse crystals to ultra thin microcrystalline deposits.

These coatings vary from light to dark grey to color. Coatings are darker as the carbon content of the underlying steel increases, as the ferrous content of the coating increases, as heavy metal ions are incorporated into the phosphating solution, or as the substrate metal is acid pickled prior to phosphating and microcrystalline coatings are usually darker grey than coatings of the same weight with coarser crystals.







 2 :- MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATING:- Manganese phosphate coatings are generally accepted as giving the best performance for purely corrosion protective applications and are widely used for this purpose particularly in the USA and UK. Un accelerated manganese phosphate processes still find limited application and are specified for certain military applications. In particular these are used where rinsing facilities are limited and for components seams of crevices from which it is difficult to rinse out the traces of the treatment bath and where the trapped active accelerator ions can be a potential source of corrosion.





 3  :-  IRON PHOSPHATE COATING:- These coatings were the first to be used commercially. The original Coslett process was of the ferrous phosphate type, prepared by dissolving iron filing in the phosphoric acid. The original Coslett bath contained the following:

Iron filing                     28 g

Phosphoric acid           110-115g

Water to make            4480 ml

Iron and steel articles acquire protective phosphate coating after 2.0 – 2.5 hours treatment in boiling solution.

Initially the bath was essentially based on phosphoric acid. Metallic accelerators such as nickel may now be added and the iron content of the bath is usually achieved by processing scrap rather than addition of iron filings. Oxidizing accelerators are normally avoided as they tend to increase the tendency of oxidation of ferrous phosphate to the insoluble ferric form.




Victory – Arya Group of Colleges jaipur

Victory- A Gala Annual Event organized by students in the month of April every year. As name states, Victory provides a stage wherein student get open chance to showcase skills, creativity and talent. This annual event is a synonym of winning and success which motivates students to start their upcoming academic session which much joy, positive energy and creative thoughts.

Arya Group of Colleges have a huge gamut of students which makes VICTORY one of the biggest celebration/event of the year. It is a fusion of cultural and techno cultural activities. A complete one day is dedicated to this event which starts from the morning and runs throughout the day.

Victory is also known as awarding stage where students get awarded and recognized for the achievements they have done in particular year. Since the inception of Arya Group of Colleges-Jaipur, Victory is glamorized and attended by known personalities of state and nation from the field of Government, Arts, Bollywood Industry and person of social and national importance.

Dr.Arvind Agarwal, President-Arya Group of Colleges-Jaipur say that – “Annual events play a pivotal role in shaping up students skills and confidence, therefore, cultural events should be a mandatory part of all academic institutions”

Arya Group of Colleges understands the importance of life skills which student requires being a productive and proactive individual. To shape up a student into a assetful citizen of the nation, all-round development is needed and certainly, events like Victory has an important role to play. Since three years Victory is gained a lot of presence in the state of Rajasthan and thus many colleges from different parts of state and city are now taking enthusiastic participation in this techno-cultural feast.

Victory is able to attract many sponsors from various business houses from Jaipur and other cities like Pune, Delhi , Bangalore etc which is testimony that Victory has gained a lot of presence. A purely student-oriented activity which is organized by students provides something more than then a cultural event.

Dr.Puja Agrawal, Group Director-Arya Group of Colleges-Jaipur says that “We seek to make our events bigger every year. These events are much helpful in providing leadership skills and organizational attitude to students which indirectly help them to keep their intellect on the right path.

“Youth of today which is exposed to all information in this e-age have a lot of energy and ideas- The only concern is to utilize them in the right direction,” says our Advisory board of Arya College Jaipur.

Not only Academic but cultural strength is a niche of Arya Group of Colleges-Jaipur and with this approach success and fame is inevitable.

“All Powers is within you; You can do anything & Everything” Swami Vivekananda



The stratified charged engine is an internal combustion engine in which air-fuel ratio is not equal throughout the cylinder. It uses the fuel charge consisting of two layers of air-fuel mixture. A rich mixture is provided close to the spark plug by a small auxiliary inlet valve and a lean mixture in the cylinder through the main inlet valve. This combination of a rich mixture near the spark plug and a lean mixture in the cylinder allowed stable running, yet complete combustion of fuel and low exhaust gas emission.

Traditional Otto cycle engine :

In traditional Otto cycle engine, the fuel and air are mixed outside the cylinder and are drawn into it during the intake stroke. The air/fuel ratio is kept very close to Stoichiometric ratio. The mixture is easily ignited and burns smoothly.

The problem with this design is that after the combustion process is complete, the resulting mixture contains considerable amount of free oxygen and nitrogen atoms. The creates Nox , pollutant.

Traditional diesel engine :

In diesel engine the fuel is injected into the cylinder directly. In diesel engine the fuel is sprayed right into the highly compressed air, and never has time to mix properly. This leads to portions of the charge consisting almost entirely of air, and others almost entirely of fuel. The inefficient combustion that result from poor mixture leads to the presence of other pollutants.

The stratified charge design attempts to fix the problems with both engines . It uses a direct injection system like the diesel, with its inherit ability to be run at efficient high compressions.

However like the Otto, it relies on gasoline’s ability to mix quickly and cleanly in order to avoid the poor combustion found in diesel.

Traditional diesel engine

Features of stratified charged engine :

  • A stratified charge engine concentrate a rich mixture near the sparkplug(air-fuel ratio is less than 14.7:1) and lean mixture (at air fuel ratios 50:1 or greater) throughout into the cylinder.
  • This technique enables the use of ultra-lean mixture (50:1) or greater that would be impossible with carburettor fuel injection hence reduce the fuel consumption.
  • Stratified charge engine could operate unthrottled as does the diesel engine.
  • Stratified charge engine is surrounded mostly by air, which keeps the fuel flame away from cylinder walls and finally reduce emission and heat losses.
  • They have significantly high HC and NOx emissions .they can be minimized by using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). In this a catalytic converter in exhaust system can further oxidise CO and HC emission from engine.

Conclusion :

Direct injection stratified charge gasoline have significantly higher fuel economy than conventional throttled engines . by stratified the air fuel mixture in the centre of the combustion chamber and keeps the hot products away from the walls, hence the heat loss can be reduced

By the Exhaust Gas Recirculation system, their is sufficient gain in thermal efficiency or elimination of throttle losses, increased compression ratio.

Stratified charge make it possible to lower the temperature at which the fuel is sprayed.

The advantage on this system on fuel economy is (15 to 20)% less fuel than the traditional engine.




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