Solar Energy

arya college

India is the world’s third largest producer and third largest consumer of electricity. Electric energy consumption in agriculture was recorded highest (17.89%) in 2015-16 among all countries.  Though at present, the per capita electricity consumption is low compared to many countries despite cheaper electricity tariff in India. We still have villages, which are in engulfed in darkness despite the potential of our landscape. However, with the growing population, urbanization, and industrialization the consumption is likely to grow. We need to be prepared to meet the requirements and be future ready.

Owing to it’s diverse landscape, India has surplus power generation capacity but lacks adequate infrastructure for supplying electricity to all. With its growing positioning as one of the world’s fastest growing economies, India can’t afford to stay in dark and electricity is one of the most fundamental needs of its people.

In order to cope with the lack of adequate electricity supply to all the people in the country by March 2019, the Government of India has launched a scheme called “Power for all”. This scheme aims to ensure continuous and uninterrupted electricity supply to all its villages, towns and cities and of course the industries and commercial establishments. The Indian government is rigorously creating and improving necessary infrastructure to buttress its goal.

Thus, Apart from the conventional source of energy that is dominantly fossil fuel, India is looking at unconventional sources such as hydro, solar, wind power etc. India’s renewable energy sector is amongst the world’s most active players in renewable energy utilization, especially solar and wind electricity generation.Fortunately, India is endowed with ample amount of Solar Energy and generation potential. And making use of its assets wisely is the way forward.

Rooftop solar power is a revolution that is widespread across the country and the world. Backed by favorable government policies, India is all set to be one of the largest generators of solar power in the world.

The fresh uprising in this sector has noteworthy socio-economic effects for India. Be it job creation or empowerment of people in energy-deprived regions of the country. both to regions that have little to no conventional source of power, and Distributed construction – primarily rooftop solar PV power plants – will take part in a major job in bringing solar power to developed urban centers that have grid power but not enough to hold their rapid extension.

All hands and minds need to come together as a single force to participate in the revolution to make it a success. The pledge to make India ‘darkness- free’ can sustain only if all the stakeholders participate wholeheartedly. Colleges and other educational institutions will play a significant role in this transformation, not only in creating awareness about solar energy amongst their students but also by utilizing rooftop solar power to demonstrate that they are already part of the future. The benefits to the institution, its faculty, students, and to society at large are massive which is why many of India’s most famous educational institutions have already installed large rooftop solar power plants on their rooftops.

The use of solar power has grown both in residential and commercial use. Educational institutions have caught up on solar plants as it’s an excellent investment as well as an opportunity to make its contribution towards the country. As a social responsibility project at Arya College, to has adopted solar power for their campuses and facilities, it is developing solar capacities of 1 MW or higher.

With solar power on campus and in facilities, the college is leading it’s way to renewable energy. It is setting a trend for other institutions to follow, and it is taking advantage of its vast solar resources to educate students on renewable energy.

Renewable energy is energy from sources that are naturally replenishing but flow-limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time. Given the aggravating condition of the resource, It is the call of the hour and a matter of utmost importance. It is commendable that Arya College has chosen to pay heed and responded with a solution to address the issue.

Arya College has installed solar panels on its rooftop to not only satisfy its in-house needs. Most noteworthy is that the project thus installed, is the one lead by its own Alumni and its existing students of the Electrical branch.

Not only does Arya College plan to fulfill the in-house needs but the remaining will be injected to the main Grid. Arya’s approach is futuristic and progressive.





Why Soft Skills are more important than you think


Securing a seat in a good Engineering college is an uphill task in itself. Once a student has put his foot into the gateway, his focus is to learn the nuances of Engineering. And he lays impetus on gaining the hard skills which could land him to his dream job. When a student of Engineering reaches the third year he realizes that his knowledge, projects and assignments and test scores would not really suffice. He should be able to make an impression during the interview process, to walk through the golden gates of his Dream Company. Other students with the same hard skills are a stiff competition. Now what is the differentiator and how do they make an impact??

A survey of 303 employers across the country by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (Ficci) in 2010 found a majority of graduates lacked adequate “soft skills” to be employed in the industry. As per the report, 75 per cent of technical graduates and more than 85 per cent of general students are unemployable.” Not taking soft skills as an essential skill is like asking for irreparable damage. Not only does an engineering student need these skills to make a head start in the job market   but they are needed to sustain the job as well.

Soft Skills are harder to learn since they involve unlearning your instinctive reactions (which were never questioned during your entire life) and replacing them with a more deliberate approach to win in every situation. Having said that, I would like to assure each and every reader that, it is not that a student can’t be brought to pace and taught this subtle art. Yes art!  Now that explains why it is so evasive!!

Colleges know that they are answerable and their success not only depends on giving the working knowledge of engineering to its students but also, the Return on investment of the money time and energy can only sustain their position as leaders.

Every college worth it’s salt is working on making students future ready, they are not only restructuring the existing learning system , working on acquiring unprecedented industry patronage and striking strategic international alliances for a holistic development but have included applicative soft skills program in their agenda.

Being a Communications Trainer, I have been working with various corporate and colleges and

One such college I have had the pleasure to work with is Arya College, Kukas Jaipur.

Arya College realized it in time that, Automation and Artificial Intelligence will result in a great proportion of jobs relying on Soft Skills. Thanks to the cutting – edge technology, task that require hard skills are continuing to decline making Soft Skills as the key differentiator in the work place. Their determination to adapt and fit into the ever changing industrial environment is extremely practical and a need of the hour.

Arya has formed a cell, called Student Development Cell (SDC) to adapt their services to the ever changing environment. Without wasting time, Arya has overhauled the entire approach towards student development. It has a very process driven SDC, which consists of extremely experienced trainers and their method of training is experiential. Which means no soft skills can be effectively taught to a student without involving his mind and it should call for an action at his end too. Just like one can’t be taught to cycle without practically getting on a cycle. Similarly one can’t be taught the Art of communication and presentation or attending an interview successfully without practically going through that process. SDC makes sure that they simulate the entire process of interview, so that it doesn’t come as a surprise to its students.

The SDC at Arya College takes its students though the four layer of simulation, to do away with the fear of English Language, basics of the language are taught to the students in the first year. Then comes, the preparation for Verbal and Aptitude tests in the second year. The third year is dedicated to technical trainings related to the concern branch, professionals and trainers are invited from the industry for a meaningful learning of the student. While the fourth year is the year of mock group discussions, debates, interviews skills, body language.

Arya calls industry specialist for the simulation of the interview environment to give its students a flavor of variety.

No wonder their industry alliances for on campus placements are swelling by the year. The robust placement is a result of a very systematic approach towards meeting the industry need and fulfilling the commitment Arya makes to its student. Fine tuning the student’s skills for a rewarding career has adequately paid off Arya turn into an industry leader!

Girl Education..

“if you educate a man you educate an individual, but if you educate a woman you educate a family.”

In a society where women were worshiped as Durga, the invincible once, Laxmi the goddess of wealth, fortune and prosperity and Saraswati is the goddess of knowledge, music, art, wisdom and nature. Today we see them struggling to get even a semblance of respect. The discrimination is palpable and heart wrenching.

Discrimination on the basis of group, class category or gender. Discrimination in all aspects of life , even Education. Despite Literacy being fundamental for participating in society. Adult Literacy rate has been a serious global worry.But it seems we are yet to mellow down as a society and respond to the need of the hour.

There is a wide gender disparity in the literacy rate in India. Effective literacy rates in 2011 were 80.9% for men and 64.60% for women.Rajasthan has the lowest literacy rate I;e 52%. The condition is lamentable and we as society need to reform the situation before it gets further low.

Not just the government, It is the responsibility of the educated class to step in, facilitate women education and help minimize the inequity. The inequity of opportunities offered to a woman viz a viz man..Helping her quench her thirst for knowledge, empowering her with tools of independence and allowing her the dignity with which she deserves to live !! Half of the world consisits of women. And her being unedcuated doesn’t help the situation. Giving women their place as equals and not as a base citizen whose job is to serve the men without any say in the matter.

The voice of the reasoning and the clamor for help can’t be ignored anymore. The capable will have to pitch in and closing one’s eyes to the issue is no more an option.

It’s heartening to know that some of the people and organizations have assumed responsibility to bring in a silent but very effective revolution.   Arya College is one them It has chosen to respond to the call and took upon itself to be a part of the journey of emancipation. The journey which women are today undertaking and breaking ground like never before. Arya College wants to make it’s contribution to help women soar and take on unprecedented challenges, without guilt.The guilt which society has since time unknown forced on women, when they seek anything beyond what is voluntarily offered to them.

Arya College is contributing towards the cause, by providing free education to women and helping her realize her dreams of a dignified life and a life of purpose.The Collegehas very magnanimously opened up more than 201 seats worth almost 6 response to ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ campaign. They are committed towards creating opportunities and giving their time and effort to nudge womenin the direction of education and progress. The simple fact that so many women are drawn to work outside the home despite criticism demonstrates the monetary and psychological importance of education and employment for women.

When women are breaking the mold and the challenging the outlook that women are fit only for filling very docile roles in the family and are incapable of taking any meaningful decisions. In response to this regressive an hostile thought process, Arya College has chosen to Lead by example and make it a tad easy of young women to prove their mettle and grow to glory. Be it providing free education, employment, and empowering her with skills or helping groom her personality from an unsure and self-doubting individual to a very confident and enlightened woman, who has imbibed Aryan valuesystem.Values, thatencourage women tostrive to develop and pursue higher standards. Arya has paved a path for others to follow.

Arya College is a Premier Source for Education, Workforce Training, Partnerships and Economic Development. The management at Arya College has highest of expectations from their underling,asArya gives them the means to bring the best in it’s wards leaving no stone unturned when it comes to quality education, breaking educational environments, opportunities, and experiences that enable individuals, communities, and the region to grow, thrive, and prosper.They are dedicated to meeting the needs of the nation.

This is that time of the year when students are in the most confused state of being

Where to be where not to be is the biggest question. And no one who has crossed the bridge can say that the bridge was not a very unnerving expedition. Study hard. Win the 12th  with your strongest strike and you will hit the jackpot. Students strive hard to strike hard so that they can knock at the doors of adulthood with all the confidence they can humanly muster. Thus they aim with the best arrow from their arsenal. Once spent, they feel cheated, as that’s not where the struggle stops…it has just begun.

The frown deepens and student is most nervous and vulnerable at this juncture. Even someone who has chosen his dream field and discovered his passion and is all set to take the world now doesn’t know, how?

Whom to trust?

Where is it that he will get the best guidance and avenue where his energies will be best channelized?

I, Being associated with various Engineering and Management colleges as a Soft Skills Trainer get to work with students. I experience their most defenceless   facet and trust me when I say that, it makes me extremely jittery and guilt ridden. As a senior I want to be able to do my bit to address their alarm.

For a recent assignment, I visited an Engineering College located at Kukas, Jaipur, called Arya College. Truthfully, I thought it would be yet another run of the mill College offering Engineering course to unsuspecting students. Selling them a dream which may or may not be realised. Thankfully, I was pleasantly surprised.

What I saw, was the main campus of Arya College spread in a welcoming 21 acres of lush green surroundings, and it’s extremely student centric management. The management with their ears to the ground, so that the student is not left in a lurch once they pass out.

I visited their Advanced Labs and the State of the Art infrastructure of the Labs they have established to implement the theoretical learning. Faculty encourage each student to ‘learn by doing’. The method of teaching being participative and progressive. Strong research orientation is their strength benefitting the student in understanding and implementing the Art of Engineering on the ground.

Speaking with the students gave me, an insight into their work, on a bouquet of technologies, a few left indelible impressions like a Moving Humanoid, which works on Artificial Intelligence and is super compliant.

A Robotic Arm which can prove to be a boon to a person with no arm. The Robotic Arm takes its instructions from the owner of the arm and moves like a regular arm and is wonderfully amenable!! Arya has decided to patent it.

According to the latest news reports the Air Drone Craze is in full swing in most countries and consumer DRONE MAKERS are flooding the market with new 2018 Quad copter models all the time. Interestingly, Arya Group of Colleges is in tandem with world of Electric Aviation and its students have engineered a Quad copter model- Drone.

MSME Labs , Linux Labs and Foss Labs by IIT Mumbai , C-DAC oriented Java Labs and Artificial Intelligence Labs are a few other building blocks of the Edifice called Arya. I’m impressed because I had not expected such mindfulness from a private college of Jaipur. While speaking to the Faculty my understanding was that, Arya’s aim is to impart education of the highest quality to the young minds, instil them with specialized training, provide opportunities for innovation and research, and inspire them to be knowledgeable, professional, and competent individuals.

The faculty is among the best in the world in their areas of interest. They impart education for exceptional careers in Engineering and related fields.

My interaction with Arya’ Student Development Cell was equally revealing, the cell is organised to work on the development of the student’s personality right from the moment he sets his foot in the College Campus to the day he moves to the world of corporate. With high hopes and higher confidence. One gets to read more than enough data and articles which say that more than 80% of Engineering students are not employable, indicating a significant skill gap.

Arya happens to leverage upon the Corporate initiatives and they have evolved a lot many Student Development Programs right from training on the basic language  (since engineering students are rarely conversant in English) to advanced Interview skills. Arya College has partnered with Infosys for their Corporate Connect program. They have hired SCOUT a Pune based top notch company to work upon the soft skills and personality development of their students.

With every passing year the gap between the industry’s technical growth and subsequent requirements have changed 100 folds while the Engineering syllabus never seem to budge at all. Arya has bridged the gap by building quality work experience, opportunities more widespread. They have invited the industry heavy weights like BOSCH and GOOGLE to impart the updated courses to students and stitched various Faculty Development Programs to make sure that the lecturers at Arya are well versed with what is new technical know-how in the industry. The uncertainty around skills is absolutely lethal and I see this being the foremost mission of the Cell to remove the ignorance.

To make students work ready, it was heartening to see that Arya is looking for the right solutions like Apprenticeship and Students exchange program at a phenomenal level.

A College with a soul is how I would describe the Arya College. The College Management has put to good use its huge experience and vintage.


Power Electronics is nothing but a way of converting electrical energy from one form to another, the output by the conversion is a better, more efficient, error free, clean, compact,  simple and  convenient to use.

The study of power electronics and electric motor drives involves processing of electric power for a variety of uses. And provide a wide range of application within the range from a few watts to megawatts. For the example we can take various computer disk drives, drills with variable speed, lamp dimmers, electric vehicles, industrial machine tools, and electrical drives.

The area of power electronics is so vast that every day average 12 billion kilowatts per hour of power which is more than 80 % of the power generated is converted or processed or recycled by some of power electronic devices. As the power conversion efficiency is low the losses of energy during the power conversion are so high. We can understand this by a small example of estimated power consumption in a desktop sold in one year, which is equal to the 17 power plants of 500 MW. So it is very necessary to improve the efficiency of the power conversion systems.

By an estimated calculation, it has been found that with the use of efficient and economically effective power electronic technology, the world can save 35 % reduction in energy consumption.

Following are various applications with a wide power range from a few tens of watts to several hundreds of megawatts. As power semiconductor devices improve in performance, efficiency and if the cost will be reduced, more systems will undoubtedly use power electronics.

  • Residential
  • Refrigeration and freezers
  • Space heating
  • Air conditioning
  • Cooking
  • Lighting
  • Electronics (PCs, other entertainment equipment)


  • Commercial
  • Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning
  • Central refrigeration
  • Lighting
  • Computers and office equipment
  • Uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs)
  • Elevators
  • Industrial
  • Pumps
  • Compressors
  • Blowers and fans
  • Machine tools (robots)
  • Arc furnaces and induction furnaces
  • Lighting
  • Industrial lasers
  • Induction heating
  • Welding


  • Transportation
  • Traction control of electric vehicles
  • Battery chargers for electric vehicles
  • Electric locomotives
  • Street cars, trolley buses
  • Subways
  • Automotive electronics, including engine controls
  • Utility systems
  • HVDC
  • SVC
  • Supplemental energy sources (wind, photo voltaic), fuel cells
  • Energy storage systems
  • Induced draft fans and boiler feedwater pumps
  • Aerospace
  • Space shuttle power supply systems
  • Satellite power systems
  • Aircraft power systems
  • Telecommunications
  • Battery chargers
  • Power supplies (DC and UPS)

It is literally impossible to list all the application of power electronics today; it has covered almost all the areas where electrical energy is being used. This has become a trend now and it is increasing, especially with the present scenario of new devices and integrated design of power semiconductor devices and controllers. The ease of manufacturing has also helped these devices to be available so now a day these devices exist in a vast range of ratings and gradually have appeared in high voltage and extra high voltage systems also. In the end it can be summaries in the words that, the day is not far when all of the electrical energy in the world will pass through power electronic systems.


A Multi-agent Approach to the Deregulation and Restructuring of Power Industry

Deregulation and restructuring of utility industry has been an important area for the past decade. Regulatory body, operation environment, technologies, definition of boundary, and the nature of electricity business have changed very fast. Therefore, it is very difficult and impossible to use the old rules or regulations, which were considered before the creation of computers, to manage and control the current power industry. In the past, production and distribution of electricity had been considered as natural monopoly due to the economic scale.

The new power plants and transmission systems could cost several billions of dollars. Such a franchise monopoly, under protection and isolated from competition, obviously has a much weaker incentive to control costs and avoid bad decisions. Therefore, we have been subject to excessive costs that were unjust and unjustifiable. For example, the bad decisions in 1970s is  the expansion of power gene ratio, the state of the art in the state of Washington is one of the best motivations to deregulate and restructure the energy industry is to avoid the same error.

As innovations in electrical engineering, materials science and supporting information technologies have developed rapidly, the low cost of generating and transporting electricity has become possible. As a result, several countries, Such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Norway, Chile and Argentina have taken significant steps towards the deregulation and privatization of their electric power industry. Production, transportation and distribution services were grouped into one commodity. After restructuring or deregulation, they could be treated as individual service providers and priced separately. As a result, more participants, many of whom have been excluded in making decisions on their behalf, could participate in the negotiations to create a more profitable and efficient market. The expansion of the power system was driven by the demand market. Security, reliability and economic issues must be separated so that the conflict of interest in the power distribution can be avoided. This was the best incentive for the development of the Independent System Operator (ISO). To ensure a smooth transition from the regulated and protected environment to a more open and competitive market, ISO may have a important role to play.  In a restructured market, structure of information and the decision-making process have become more decentralized and more distributed. As a result, the information processing and communication requirements between participants have been modified to reflect changes in the market structure. Decentralization of planning, management and operations has created a demand for new methods, models and technologies.

For example, a workshop was organized thanks to the joint efforts of Pserc (Energy System Engineering Research Center) and EPRI (Institute for Research in Electrical Energy) to identify the tools and systems in engineering and economics that necessary in the future. In such a decentralized market, each participant should be able to remain independent in a free and open market. In addition, they can be geographically dispersed the Internet and technology agents can support their communication, negotiation and coordination.

Internet technologies and agents can be used together to develop systems for planning and operating the utility market . However, the requirements on the support operation are much higher, because a decision must be made in a few seconds if there is a demand to balance the load. We will solve the operation problem in our future research. In this article, we focus on the planning phase of the system.

To prove that the Internet and multi-agent systems can be a new alternative to system expansion planning, we have developed an Internet-based multi-agent system to help participants better identify or more appropriate partnerships within the electricity market, such as suppliers and consumers. The core of the multi-agent system is a flexible multilateral trading system, developed on the basis of the bilateral value Shapley Value (BSV).


Electric Machines & Magnetic Field

Good Morning,

As we know, today’s world is growing at very fast pace, keeping in mind of various technological innovations and the basic requirements for all such innovations brings my focus to Electrical Energy.

For all such actions available to a common man, the availability of minimum & sufficient supply of electrical energy to each is essential. So for this entire let us have a basic knowledge of Electrical Machines and the very important work done by magnetic field which made this a possibility and not a dream.

    The key point is       

“Why we use Magnetic field only as a medium of conversion in the design of electrical machines”

Take an example of Transformer –a static, non linear device used to change the voltage levels at a constant frequency. Under normal operating level voltages, electric field strength developed will be very weak. In contrary even by having very less magnitude of current, we can develop a strong magnetic field by increasing number of turns. Maximum allowed energy density for air with respect to magnetic field is more compared to electric field. In other words we can say that for a given power rating, the size of machine, volume of material requirement and the cost of machine will be less with magnetic field compared to electric field.

By the study of various experiments carried out by famous scientists like Oersted, Ampere and Faraday’s the use of magnetic field in electric machines and its behavior characteristics were made clear to us, for example by Oersted’s experiment the generation of magnetic field by passage of electric current .Next Ampere’s experiment which gave us knowledge about the direct proportionality of magnetic field or flux to the current if and only if system is linear. Finally the Faraday’s law which thoroughly explained the induction of EMF by a changing flux that brought about a revolution in the electrical engineering.

So let us face the reality , a lot has been done in the field of electrical engineering and a lot is yet to be achieved and meet the requirements .A little step by all the members of electrical fraternity and also by all those who uses it can change the present scenario of Electrical Energy generation and requirement.


Top Guns

We meet to part & we part to meet, 

Saying adieu is a most difficult thing, especially when it comes to college life which is surrounded by numerous memories and bond of friendship to students. 

A farewell, A function, A celebration, A Party and wrapping all with memories that when we call goodbye with good wishes to our final year students.

Since college inception, this event is always celebrated with huge enthusiasm and lot of energy. It takes a lot of efforts from students and college both so students can be made ready to face future challenges. It can be seen and felt that after 4 years student turn to a better human and trained engineer, celebrating all those 4 years and the combination of all memories which students and college spent and made together make the farewell party. 

The best part of the entire evening is that final year student shown a lot of love and respect to their mentors, teachers giving a real meaning to Guru Shishya tradition. We always feel to cherish this tradition. Farewell is always seen and observed as a touching moment for student and teachers. The bond of excellence, achievements, winning is seen between the students and teachers. 

Farewell is not just to say goodbye but to energise the coming batches and to impart them with a lot of energy so that they can repeat the saga of success and keep faith to reach the epitome of success. 


Various Types OF Anti Knock Agents in Petrol Engine

Definition: – Anti Knocking agents are the additives added in small quantities in petrol engine to reduce the knocking tendency.

Introduction: – Initially A.H. Gibson and harry Ricardo do their research on anti knock agents. Very much known anti knock agent was tetraethyl lead (TEL). Later on Derek Bryce-Smith and Clair Cameron Patterson discover the environmental and Health issues with TEL because of lead. Now a day’s most of countries are phasing out leaded fuel and focusing on various anti knock additives. There are three major group of anti knock agents.

1 aromatics

2 Oxygenates

3 organo-metallic compounds.

1   Aromatics: – Benzene is one of the known aromatic compounds. U.S. EPA limits the overall benzene concentration in refined gasoline. Because benzene have been identified as carcinogen. Toluene and xylene are the main aromatic organic solvents usually found in anti knock additives. Toluene is a clear, water insoluble liquid. The properties of toluene and xylene are nearly identical. They are both octane boosters. They are also not bad for human health because it does not show carcinogenic.

2   Oxygenates: – Ethanol is most widely blended with gasoline. Similar type of octane enhancement can be obtained by methanol, isopropyl alcohol and tertiary butyl alcohol. The either is most widely used as a gasoline additive by refiners is MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether).

MTBE is soluble with water therefore its use as an anti knock agent is controversial. ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether) are good octane enhancing ether additives.

Oxygenates additives reduce the knocking but there are other draw with this. Like they are having low calorific value and reduce the mileage also.


3 organometallic compounds: – MMT (methyl cyclopentadieny manganese tri-carbonyl), dicyclopentadienyl iron, nickel carbonyl are metallic anti knock agent. They are toxic in nature. These

 additives having the problems with catalytic exhaust system, premature spark plug failure and engine wear. MMT is banned by U.S.A. in 1978 because of its toxic nature. Ferrocene (Fe (C5H5)2) having the unusual chemical structure. But it is safer then TEL. In Europe, iron pent carbonyl was once used as an anti-knock agent in petrol in place of tetraethyl lead. Iron pent carbonyl has been found to be a strong flame speed inhibitor in oxygen based flames.

Conclusion: – oxygenates additives are the best anti knock agents. It can increase octane rating and induce the complete fuel combustion. Aromatic compounds are also good anti knocking agents compare to the paraffin, olefins etc. Whereas organometallic compounds have environmental and health issues of human.


Phosphate coating is the treatment of iron steel, galvanized steel, or aluminum with dilute solution of phosphoric acid and other chemicals to produce mildly protective layer of insoluble crystalline phosphate.

The particular system considered in this research work is zinc phosphate coating. Recently, a better understanding of zinc phosphate coating has become essential with the fast development of surface treatment process. The available literature clearly points out that the content of accelerators, bath temperature, total acid point age, free acid point age, acid ratio, iron content, time for treatment are some important variables of phosphate coating. Although, the past investigation were helpful in identifying the variable factors to attain good quality of phosphate coatings remain as basic problem for the surface treated. Further, it was recognized that zinc phosphate coating is generally accepted to give the best performance for corrosion protection application base of lubricant, improve wear resistance and base for paint.

In the present work pretreatment and post treatment were carried out in the department. Actual phosphate was done by varying the process parameter. The data obtained were used to reveal physical property of zinc phosphate coating such as appearance, corrosion resistance, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study,  with the factors like bath temperature, time and concentration of accelerator.




1 :- ZINC PHOSPHATE COATING: – The zinc phosphate coating cover a wide range of weights and crystal characteristics, ranging from heavy films with coarse crystals to ultra thin microcrystalline deposits.

These coatings vary from light to dark grey to color. Coatings are darker as the carbon content of the underlying steel increases, as the ferrous content of the coating increases, as heavy metal ions are incorporated into the phosphating solution, or as the substrate metal is acid pickled prior to phosphating and microcrystalline coatings are usually darker grey than coatings of the same weight with coarser crystals.







 2 :- MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATING:- Manganese phosphate coatings are generally accepted as giving the best performance for purely corrosion protective applications and are widely used for this purpose particularly in the USA and UK. Un accelerated manganese phosphate processes still find limited application and are specified for certain military applications. In particular these are used where rinsing facilities are limited and for components seams of crevices from which it is difficult to rinse out the traces of the treatment bath and where the trapped active accelerator ions can be a potential source of corrosion.





 3  :-  IRON PHOSPHATE COATING:- These coatings were the first to be used commercially. The original Coslett process was of the ferrous phosphate type, prepared by dissolving iron filing in the phosphoric acid. The original Coslett bath contained the following:

Iron filing                     28 g

Phosphoric acid           110-115g

Water to make            4480 ml

Iron and steel articles acquire protective phosphate coating after 2.0 – 2.5 hours treatment in boiling solution.

Initially the bath was essentially based on phosphoric acid. Metallic accelerators such as nickel may now be added and the iron content of the bath is usually achieved by processing scrap rather than addition of iron filings. Oxidizing accelerators are normally avoided as they tend to increase the tendency of oxidation of ferrous phosphate to the insoluble ferric form.