APPLICATION OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Power Electronics is nothing but a way of converting electrical energy from one form to another, the output by the conversion is a better, more efficient, error free, clean, compact,  simple and  convenient to use.

The study of power electronics and electric motor drives involves processing of electric power for a variety of uses. And provide a wide range of application within the range from a few watts to megawatts. For the example we can take various computer disk drives, drills with variable speed, lamp dimmers, electric vehicles, industrial machine tools, and electrical drives.

The area of power electronics is so vast that every day average 12 billion kilowatts per hour of power which is more than 80 % of the power generated is converted or processed or recycled by some of power electronic devices. As the power conversion efficiency is low the losses of energy during the power conversion are so high. We can understand this by a small example of estimated power consumption in a desktop sold in one year, which is equal to the 17 power plants of 500 MW. So it is very necessary to improve the efficiency of the power conversion systems.

By an estimated calculation, it has been found that with the use of efficient and economically effective power electronic technology, the world can save 35 % reduction in energy consumption.

Following are various applications with a wide power range from a few tens of watts to several hundreds of megawatts. As power semiconductor devices improve in performance, efficiency and if the cost will be reduced, more systems will undoubtedly use power electronics.

  • Residential
  • Refrigeration and freezers
  • Space heating
  • Air conditioning
  • Cooking
  • Lighting
  • Electronics (PCs, other entertainment equipment)

 

  • Commercial
  • Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning
  • Central refrigeration
  • Lighting
  • Computers and office equipment
  • Uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs)
  • Elevators
  • Industrial
  • Pumps
  • Compressors
  • Blowers and fans
  • Machine tools (robots)
  • Arc furnaces and induction furnaces
  • Lighting
  • Industrial lasers
  • Induction heating
  • Welding

 

  • Transportation
  • Traction control of electric vehicles
  • Battery chargers for electric vehicles
  • Electric locomotives
  • Street cars, trolley buses
  • Subways
  • Automotive electronics, including engine controls
  • Utility systems
  • HVDC
  • SVC
  • Supplemental energy sources (wind, photo voltaic), fuel cells
  • Energy storage systems
  • Induced draft fans and boiler feedwater pumps
  • Aerospace
  • Space shuttle power supply systems
  • Satellite power systems
  • Aircraft power systems
  • Telecommunications
  • Battery chargers
  • Power supplies (DC and UPS)

It is literally impossible to list all the application of power electronics today; it has covered almost all the areas where electrical energy is being used. This has become a trend now and it is increasing, especially with the present scenario of new devices and integrated design of power semiconductor devices and controllers. The ease of manufacturing has also helped these devices to be available so now a day these devices exist in a vast range of ratings and gradually have appeared in high voltage and extra high voltage systems also. In the end it can be summaries in the words that, the day is not far when all of the electrical energy in the world will pass through power electronic systems.

 

A Multi-agent Approach to the Deregulation and Restructuring of Power Industry

Deregulation and restructuring of utility industry has been an important area for the past decade. Regulatory body, operation environment, technologies, definition of boundary, and the nature of electricity business have changed very fast. Therefore, it is very difficult and impossible to use the old rules or regulations, which were considered before the creation of computers, to manage and control the current power industry. In the past, production and distribution of electricity had been considered as natural monopoly due to the economic scale.

The new power plants and transmission systems could cost several billions of dollars. Such a franchise monopoly, under protection and isolated from competition, obviously has a much weaker incentive to control costs and avoid bad decisions. Therefore, we have been subject to excessive costs that were unjust and unjustifiable. For example, the bad decisions in 1970s is  the expansion of power gene ratio, the state of the art in the state of Washington is one of the best motivations to deregulate and restructure the energy industry is to avoid the same error.

As innovations in electrical engineering, materials science and supporting information technologies have developed rapidly, the low cost of generating and transporting electricity has become possible. As a result, several countries, Such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Norway, Chile and Argentina have taken significant steps towards the deregulation and privatization of their electric power industry. Production, transportation and distribution services were grouped into one commodity. After restructuring or deregulation, they could be treated as individual service providers and priced separately. As a result, more participants, many of whom have been excluded in making decisions on their behalf, could participate in the negotiations to create a more profitable and efficient market. The expansion of the power system was driven by the demand market. Security, reliability and economic issues must be separated so that the conflict of interest in the power distribution can be avoided. This was the best incentive for the development of the Independent System Operator (ISO). To ensure a smooth transition from the regulated and protected environment to a more open and competitive market, ISO may have a important role to play.  In a restructured market, structure of information and the decision-making process have become more decentralized and more distributed. As a result, the information processing and communication requirements between participants have been modified to reflect changes in the market structure. Decentralization of planning, management and operations has created a demand for new methods, models and technologies.

For example, a workshop was organized thanks to the joint efforts of Pserc (Energy System Engineering Research Center) and EPRI (Institute for Research in Electrical Energy) to identify the tools and systems in engineering and economics that necessary in the future. In such a decentralized market, each participant should be able to remain independent in a free and open market. In addition, they can be geographically dispersed the Internet and technology agents can support their communication, negotiation and coordination.

Internet technologies and agents can be used together to develop systems for planning and operating the utility market . However, the requirements on the support operation are much higher, because a decision must be made in a few seconds if there is a demand to balance the load. We will solve the operation problem in our future research. In this article, we focus on the planning phase of the system.

To prove that the Internet and multi-agent systems can be a new alternative to system expansion planning, we have developed an Internet-based multi-agent system to help participants better identify or more appropriate partnerships within the electricity market, such as suppliers and consumers. The core of the multi-agent system is a flexible multilateral trading system, developed on the basis of the bilateral value Shapley Value (BSV).

 

Electric Machines & Magnetic Field

Good Morning,

As we know, today’s world is growing at very fast pace, keeping in mind of various technological innovations and the basic requirements for all such innovations brings my focus to Electrical Energy.

For all such actions available to a common man, the availability of minimum & sufficient supply of electrical energy to each is essential. So for this entire let us have a basic knowledge of Electrical Machines and the very important work done by magnetic field which made this a possibility and not a dream.

    The key point is       

“Why we use Magnetic field only as a medium of conversion in the design of electrical machines”

Take an example of Transformer –a static, non linear device used to change the voltage levels at a constant frequency. Under normal operating level voltages, electric field strength developed will be very weak. In contrary even by having very less magnitude of current, we can develop a strong magnetic field by increasing number of turns. Maximum allowed energy density for air with respect to magnetic field is more compared to electric field. In other words we can say that for a given power rating, the size of machine, volume of material requirement and the cost of machine will be less with magnetic field compared to electric field.

By the study of various experiments carried out by famous scientists like Oersted, Ampere and Faraday’s the use of magnetic field in electric machines and its behavior characteristics were made clear to us, for example by Oersted’s experiment the generation of magnetic field by passage of electric current .Next Ampere’s experiment which gave us knowledge about the direct proportionality of magnetic field or flux to the current if and only if system is linear. Finally the Faraday’s law which thoroughly explained the induction of EMF by a changing flux that brought about a revolution in the electrical engineering.

So let us face the reality , a lot has been done in the field of electrical engineering and a lot is yet to be achieved and meet the requirements .A little step by all the members of electrical fraternity and also by all those who uses it can change the present scenario of Electrical Energy generation and requirement.

 

Top Guns

We meet to part & we part to meet, 

Saying adieu is a most difficult thing, especially when it comes to college life which is surrounded by numerous memories and bond of friendship to students. 

A farewell, A function, A celebration, A Party and wrapping all with memories that when we call goodbye with good wishes to our final year students.

Since college inception, this event is always celebrated with huge enthusiasm and lot of energy. It takes a lot of efforts from students and college both so students can be made ready to face future challenges. It can be seen and felt that after 4 years student turn to a better human and trained engineer, celebrating all those 4 years and the combination of all memories which students and college spent and made together make the farewell party. 

The best part of the entire evening is that final year student shown a lot of love and respect to their mentors, teachers giving a real meaning to Guru Shishya tradition. We always feel to cherish this tradition. Farewell is always seen and observed as a touching moment for student and teachers. The bond of excellence, achievements, winning is seen between the students and teachers. 

Farewell is not just to say goodbye but to energise the coming batches and to impart them with a lot of energy so that they can repeat the saga of success and keep faith to reach the epitome of success. 

 

Various Types OF Anti Knock Agents in Petrol Engine

Definition: – Anti Knocking agents are the additives added in small quantities in petrol engine to reduce the knocking tendency.

Introduction: – Initially A.H. Gibson and harry Ricardo do their research on anti knock agents. Very much known anti knock agent was tetraethyl lead (TEL). Later on Derek Bryce-Smith and Clair Cameron Patterson discover the environmental and Health issues with TEL because of lead. Now a day’s most of countries are phasing out leaded fuel and focusing on various anti knock additives. There are three major group of anti knock agents.

1 aromatics

2 Oxygenates

3 organo-metallic compounds.

1   Aromatics: – Benzene is one of the known aromatic compounds. U.S. EPA limits the overall benzene concentration in refined gasoline. Because benzene have been identified as carcinogen. Toluene and xylene are the main aromatic organic solvents usually found in anti knock additives. Toluene is a clear, water insoluble liquid. The properties of toluene and xylene are nearly identical. They are both octane boosters. They are also not bad for human health because it does not show carcinogenic.

2   Oxygenates: – Ethanol is most widely blended with gasoline. Similar type of octane enhancement can be obtained by methanol, isopropyl alcohol and tertiary butyl alcohol. The either is most widely used as a gasoline additive by refiners is MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether).

MTBE is soluble with water therefore its use as an anti knock agent is controversial. ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether) are good octane enhancing ether additives.

Oxygenates additives reduce the knocking but there are other draw with this. Like they are having low calorific value and reduce the mileage also.

 

3 organometallic compounds: – MMT (methyl cyclopentadieny manganese tri-carbonyl), dicyclopentadienyl iron, nickel carbonyl are metallic anti knock agent. They are toxic in nature. These

 additives having the problems with catalytic exhaust system, premature spark plug failure and engine wear. MMT is banned by U.S.A. in 1978 because of its toxic nature. Ferrocene (Fe (C5H5)2) having the unusual chemical structure. But it is safer then TEL. In Europe, iron pent carbonyl was once used as an anti-knock agent in petrol in place of tetraethyl lead. Iron pent carbonyl has been found to be a strong flame speed inhibitor in oxygen based flames.

Conclusion: – oxygenates additives are the best anti knock agents. It can increase octane rating and induce the complete fuel combustion. Aromatic compounds are also good anti knocking agents compare to the paraffin, olefins etc. Whereas organometallic compounds have environmental and health issues of human.

PHOSPHATE COATING

Phosphate coating is the treatment of iron steel, galvanized steel, or aluminum with dilute solution of phosphoric acid and other chemicals to produce mildly protective layer of insoluble crystalline phosphate.

The particular system considered in this research work is zinc phosphate coating. Recently, a better understanding of zinc phosphate coating has become essential with the fast development of surface treatment process. The available literature clearly points out that the content of accelerators, bath temperature, total acid point age, free acid point age, acid ratio, iron content, time for treatment are some important variables of phosphate coating. Although, the past investigation were helpful in identifying the variable factors to attain good quality of phosphate coatings remain as basic problem for the surface treated. Further, it was recognized that zinc phosphate coating is generally accepted to give the best performance for corrosion protection application base of lubricant, improve wear resistance and base for paint.

In the present work pretreatment and post treatment were carried out in the department. Actual phosphate was done by varying the process parameter. The data obtained were used to reveal physical property of zinc phosphate coating such as appearance, corrosion resistance, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study,  with the factors like bath temperature, time and concentration of accelerator.

EAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

TYPES OF PHOSPHATE COATING

  1. 1. ZINC PHOSPHATE COATING
  2. MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATING
  3. IRON PHOSPHATE COATING


1 :- ZINC PHOSPHATE COATING: – The zinc phosphate coating cover a wide range of weights and crystal characteristics, ranging from heavy films with coarse crystals to ultra thin microcrystalline deposits.

These coatings vary from light to dark grey to color. Coatings are darker as the carbon content of the underlying steel increases, as the ferrous content of the coating increases, as heavy metal ions are incorporated into the phosphating solution, or as the substrate metal is acid pickled prior to phosphating and microcrystalline coatings are usually darker grey than coatings of the same weight with coarser crystals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 2 :- MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATING:- Manganese phosphate coatings are generally accepted as giving the best performance for purely corrosion protective applications and are widely used for this purpose particularly in the USA and UK. Un accelerated manganese phosphate processes still find limited application and are specified for certain military applications. In particular these are used where rinsing facilities are limited and for components seams of crevices from which it is difficult to rinse out the traces of the treatment bath and where the trapped active accelerator ions can be a potential source of corrosion.

 

 

 

 

 3  :-  IRON PHOSPHATE COATING:- These coatings were the first to be used commercially. The original Coslett process was of the ferrous phosphate type, prepared by dissolving iron filing in the phosphoric acid. The original Coslett bath contained the following:

Iron filing                     28 g

Phosphoric acid           110-115g

Water to make            4480 ml

Iron and steel articles acquire protective phosphate coating after 2.0 – 2.5 hours treatment in boiling solution.

Initially the bath was essentially based on phosphoric acid. Metallic accelerators such as nickel may now be added and the iron content of the bath is usually achieved by processing scrap rather than addition of iron filings. Oxidizing accelerators are normally avoided as they tend to increase the tendency of oxidation of ferrous phosphate to the insoluble ferric form.

 

 

 

Victory – Arya Group of Colleges jaipur

Victory- A Gala Annual Event organized by students in the month of April every year. As name states, Victory provides a stage wherein student get open chance to showcase skills, creativity and talent. This annual event is a synonym of winning and success which motivates students to start their upcoming academic session which much joy, positive energy and creative thoughts.

Arya Group of Colleges have a huge gamut of students which makes VICTORY one of the biggest celebration/event of the year. It is a fusion of cultural and techno cultural activities. A complete one day is dedicated to this event which starts from the morning and runs throughout the day.

Victory is also known as awarding stage where students get awarded and recognized for the achievements they have done in particular year. Since the inception of Arya Group of Colleges-Jaipur, Victory is glamorized and attended by known personalities of state and nation from the field of Government, Arts, Bollywood Industry and person of social and national importance.

Dr.Arvind Agarwal, President-Arya Group of Colleges-Jaipur say that – “Annual events play a pivotal role in shaping up students skills and confidence, therefore, cultural events should be a mandatory part of all academic institutions”

Arya Group of Colleges understands the importance of life skills which student requires being a productive and proactive individual. To shape up a student into a assetful citizen of the nation, all-round development is needed and certainly, events like Victory has an important role to play. Since three years Victory is gained a lot of presence in the state of Rajasthan and thus many colleges from different parts of state and city are now taking enthusiastic participation in this techno-cultural feast.

Victory is able to attract many sponsors from various business houses from Jaipur and other cities like Pune, Delhi , Bangalore etc which is testimony that Victory has gained a lot of presence. A purely student-oriented activity which is organized by students provides something more than then a cultural event.

Dr.Puja Agrawal, Group Director-Arya Group of Colleges-Jaipur says that “We seek to make our events bigger every year. These events are much helpful in providing leadership skills and organizational attitude to students which indirectly help them to keep their intellect on the right path.

“Youth of today which is exposed to all information in this e-age have a lot of energy and ideas- The only concern is to utilize them in the right direction,” says our Advisory board of Arya College Jaipur.

Not only Academic but cultural strength is a niche of Arya Group of Colleges-Jaipur and with this approach success and fame is inevitable.

“All Powers is within you; You can do anything & Everything” Swami Vivekananda